This volume presents evidence about how we understand communication in changing times, and proposes that such understandings may contribute to the development of pedagogy for teaching and learning. It expands current debates on multilingualism, asking which signs are in use and in action, and what are their social, political, and historical implications.
The book documents the performance of linguistic repertoires in an era of profound social change caused by the shifting nature of nation-states, increased movement of people across territories, and growing digital communication.
Up until recently we have tended to regard languages as bounded entities, and multilingualism has been understood as knowing more than one language. Working with the concept of heteroglossia, researchers are developing alternative perspectives that treat languages as sets of resources for expressing meaning that can be drawn on by speakers in communicatively productive ways in different contexts. These perspectives raise fundamental questions about the myriad of ways of knowing and using language s.
This collection brings together the contributions of many of the key researchers in the field. These scholars help to move the field away from the view of languages as separate bounded system by providing detailed examples and expert analyses of the ways bilinguals and multilinguals draw upon their linguistic repertoires for effective and meaningful communication.
Wright, University of Texas at San Antonio. Adrian Blackledge, Angela Creese. Book Title : Heteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy. Editors : Adrian Blackledge, Angela Creese. Series Title : Educational Linguistics. Publisher : Springer Dordrecht. Hardcover ISBN : Softcover ISBN : Series ISSN : Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : XII, In such contexts, speakers are compelled to take up stances in relation to old and new, traditional and emerging ways of using languages, and by doing so, to contribute to the making of language boundaries and categories.
These processes are not abstract, but rather affect people experiencing and using languages in particular ways and making a variety of linguistic choices. To capture these multilingual dynamics, and the ways in which they are potentially linked, my methodological move is to examine the rhizome of dis- courses in an attempt to understand how and why languages come to be constructed in the way they are, and what people are doing with their language resources.
Nexus analysis is a form of multidimensional discourse analysis that aims to analyse the complexity and multiplicity of situ- ated language practices by examining the simultaneous coming together of participants, discourses and interactional normativities at any moment of language use. Deleuze and Guattari, ; Honan, Rhizomatic approaches e. The village itself is small, with approximately inhabitants, and may appear very peripheral from the perspective of capital cities.
The village can be seen as a nexus of many current and overlapping multilingual processes related to, for example, new economies, globalisation, mobil- ity, minority, and indigenous language rights and revitalisation, each impacting how languages are discursively constructed and resulting in emerging ways of organising and exploiting these resources. As these concepts are under continuous construction, overlapping, conflicting and even paradoxical understandings and criteria exist with regard to what is considered desirable or unde- sirable multilingualism in the indigenous community.
This is because discourses carry and convey articulations and beliefs about the nature, value and functions of languages, and they are, at the same time, embedded in the actual language practices of individuals and communities. Mills, , I use the concept of a discourse to refer to a historically embedded, relative stable, yet flexible way of signifying events, practices and relations through semiotic resources.
A particular discourse conveys a particular kind of rationality and logic, which in turn structures language and other semiotic practices and experiences. Hence a discourse is always articulated in relation to social action, which in turn is embedded in a wider matrix of various historical, political, ideological and economic processes see e.
This view of a discourse underlines the critical approach that I adopt here: all discourses about language and their speakers are fundamentally political, historical and situated, hence helping to illustrate the local, lived conditions and the consequences of multilingualism in a particular time and space, and to highlight the ways in which they may be connected to other transitions and practices. Discourses capture semiotic aspects of the social and moral order in the structuring of relations, differences and boundaries on social, economic and political grounds — rather than, say, linguistics.
This echoes the Hymesian view of language as including linguistic, social and discursive aspects see e. A rhizome of discourses in a particular time and space is not a closed or unchanging unit, but is rather an open system, emerging and transforming in the course of interaction. Consequently, the interrelationships between discourses and their networked characteristics are implied and are Downloaded from ijb.
As Honan explains in talking about applying the rhizomatic approach in education research, discourses operate in rhizomatic ways — they are not linear or separate, but instead, any text, sign or speech act potentially includes several interlinked discourses, which are connected to and across each other. Thus, a rhizomatic discourse analysis traces the lines of trajectories that connect differ- ent discourses. These have been important and valuable resources in planning, carrying out and reflecting on this particular research project.
The individu- als appearing in the data used here have given their permission to be recognised e. However, to emphasise how the discourses circulate through these sites, rather than the individual decisions and experiences, I have anonymised the participants to some extent, and have left out some directly identifying details. For the discourse analysis, I will next focus on three interconnected and simultaneously operating dis- courses in Inari regarding language change, and will examine their rhizomatic figurations.
From this perspective, multilingualism has tipped the balance between the languages in a direction unfavourable to indigenous languages, and has led to a lan- guage shift. This particular discourse can be seen as a localised version of global discourses of endangerment, famil- iar from many minority language contexts see e. It illustrates the processes of lan- guage development and change over a timescale of years. The representation makes use of the widely circulated metaphor for language families, which draws on the tree model of language origination, typical of historical linguistics.
Each language is described by one leaf, and their relative positions to each other are constructed through their posi- tions on the tree. Furthermore, the colouring of the leaves indicates the perceived vitality of the Downloaded from ijb. The central assumption in this discourse is the assumption that the cultures dies when the languages dies.
This is articulated particularly by the enumeration of speakers — a practice that, as Jaffe argues , p. Figure 2 illustrates a page from this multilingual storybook, whose author is a year-old girl, whom I will call Tiina. The goal of this activity was to make visible the various linguistic resources the children have at their disposal, and to increase awareness of the Downloaded from ijb.
Methodologically, the activity relates to a growing body of research, using visual and multimodal research strategies in ethno- graphic and discourse-analytical work on language practices, literacy and multilingualism see e. On the other hand, these choices and the way they are represented in the book draw on ideas of bounded lan- guages and fixed language boundaries.
Tiina did not opt for mixed language practices — like some other children in the classroom — but instead she produced her book within the dominant frame- work of the school language policy and language practices, thus subscribing to the rationality cir- culated by the discourse of endangerment.
In his childhood in s Lapland, he experienced Finnish-only education, which was the sole option at the time. Due to the long distances between home and the school, many children lived in dormitories and did not see their families for months. This was the case for Kalevi. Below is an extract of his interview regarding his language biography.
In the extract,6 he gives his account of taking part in this course, and of the event that stopped him going there after two days: Downloaded from ijb. Haastateltava: ne taas sitten jotka tuota. Kalevi: Well, this was maybe. Interviewer: Mm… Kalevi: …and I went there, to this language course and well…. Interviewer: Why was that? And they said that this is the right way, the way they say it. Interviewer: [right]. All right… Kalevi: What I learnt in the old days is enough for me.
That is where my language class ended laughing. Interview from Here we can see the tensions between different language constructions and norms, especially with regard to the delicate ideological boundary between what is perceived as standard, and what is the Downloaded from ijb. This tension can be seen emerging from the core language-ideological questions as regards to who owns the language and who gets to decide Coupland, ; Heller, In the language class, Kalevi wanted to hold on to his way of pronouncing the word.
Similarly, the teachers at the class wanted to hold on to their view of what is standard pronunciation. His experience illustrates the unintended effects of imposing one language standard in a situation where language boundaries are in constant flux, which is often the case in indigenous and minority language contexts. In the cycle of discourse of endangerment, language choices and boundaries can easily become politicised and policed. Within the regime of this discourse, some language practices come to be seen as more authentic than others, an issue at the heart of the next discourse.
I call this a discourse of commodification, and it is a discourse that attempts to emphasise the shift away from questions of identity and politics to issues of products and profits cf. It circulates a shift from a political order to an economic order. These less-regimented moments and encounters structure and reconfigure multilingual practices and experiences in different ways.
The discourse of commodifi- cation licences novel and creative language practices and temporal attachments and appropriations, and by doing so unties the essential link between territory, language and identity that is essential to the discourse of endangerment. It also creates a flux in language practices. Furthermore, this kind of visibility is seen as an opportunity to raise language awareness.
With translocality, the local, indigenous resources are combined and Downloaded from ijb. A restaurant sign in Inari. Figure 4 shows the public sign of a hotel restaurant in the village of Inari. The multimodal design of this sign makes use of a combination of resources.
Finally, the language choices and hierarchy in the sign index reflect the language policy within this particular hotel. The Finnish and English words for restaurant make the function of the place clear to national and global visitors. The usage of these languages marks this place as a site of mobility. The particular multimodal and multilingual choices represented in this sign open up various interpretations. Firstly, they illustrate a strategic mobilisation and recycling of indigenous, local and global resources.
As a result, we have a translocal, multivoiced sign that can speak indigenous language on a global scale. Alternatively, the viewer can read the sign simply as referring to a good fish restaurant, taking the oval shape as an index of a plate, and the fish to refer to the rivers and lakes next to the restaurant. The carnival discourse may include multimodal designs, humour, irony and language play, as we shall see below. Bakhtin further argues that carnival creates situations where regular conventions are broken or reversed, and a different kind of dialogue becomes possible.
Such polyphonic performances, as we shall shortly see, test and tease the prevailing norms, employing both fixity and fluidity to create a polyphonicity that plays with previous orders and norms, and whereby former opposites collide and merge with each other and where humour and reflection can be used both as a resource and a commodity. To illustrate this argument, I will turn next to one example of the discourse of carni- valisation in Inari.
This polyphonic performance comes from the space of tourism fantasies and paradoxes. Their main product is a guided tour of a reindeer farm — a paradox to begin with, as reindeers are for the most part untamed animals, but are now farmed and fenced off for the benefit of the tourism business.
This attraction is very successful, with over 10, visitors annually — a very large number in a village of people. One of the highlights for many tourists seems to be learning the art of lassoing a reindeer. This particular activity is, I would argue, an example of a polyphonic carni- val performance, and I will focus on that aspect next. In this interaction, the key participants are the host, the lasso teacher and the tourists.
The following extract is an example of what the teacher says in the teaching interaction when demonstrating lassoing to members of a large group of international tourists. The tourists, who come from various European countries, stand opposite the teacher, follow his instructions, and attempt to throw the lasso.
Example 2. So first I should show you this. Like this … in Finnish: it flies from here to there. All right. Are you coming to throw the lasso?! To throw this Naa. Have you ever thrown a lasso? So hold it like this. Now pull your arm back, bend it, and throw the lasso. It turns forward when you do it like this. Next Na nuuvt. Will you catch the reindeer? Have you ever caught a reindeer? So, hold it like this. After some hesitation, most of the tourists appear to take part in the activity rather enthusiastically, if with some self-consciousness indicated by their facial expressions and laughter.
During the lassoing performance, most of the tourists react with laughter to the situation of being taught in an unknown language while gently being forced to perform a probably unfamiliar task. We can laugh along with the participants, and perhaps we can also laugh at them. In this carnival discourse, the various and often rival languages and practices can come together with all the various social, political, ideological and economic values and functions attached to them.
The discourse of carnivalisation manifests itself in the deliberate displacement and subversion of the dominant, established interaction orders, rules and norms, and simultane- ously plays with and against these norms. For a moment, carnivalisation defines the relationships between participants and categories. Conclusions: Multilingualism on a geographical periphery The rhizome of discourses on changing language and multilingualism, as it emerges in the lan- guage experiences and practices of Inari, illustrates the various but interlinked ways of understat- ing and practising multilingualism, and in particular the shifting position of indigenous languages within multilingualism.
Together, these discourses circulate different rationalities regarding the condi- tions and consequences of multilingualism. On the one hand, establishing clear linguistic boundaries and categories plays a critical role in the work of identification, differ- entiation, and political and cultural legitimation for speakers of indigenous and minority languages.
On the other hand, idealised models of bounded and autonomous languages conflict with the hybrid, mixed and changing multilingual practices and identities that characterise the lived reality of indigenous and minority language speakers. As a consequence, fixity and fluidity are both val- ued, while also being objects of constant renegotiation.
The rhizomatic discourse approach adopted in this article to changing language in emerging multilingual indigenous language contexts foregrounds the practices and experiences of multilin- gual indigenous language users, who are constantly faced with multiple choices. These choices are governed not only by the normative frameworks that are in operation in each context, but also by the different understandings and constructions of what counts as language: what the speakers believe they ought to talk about, and how they describe how they talk cf.
The construction of different linguistic resources e. Thus, multilingualism can lead to both contestation and creativity in language practices, and can call into question various established perceptions and definitions of language and related concepts. The ways in which they are defined in a particular time and space are extremely revealing in terms of understanding the discourses of contemporary multilingualism.
Funding This research was supported by the Academy of Finland. Notes 1. I also wish to warmly thank all the informants, who made the research possible. My warmest thanks go to all the pupils, teachers and parents.
The extract from the interview has been edited for readability. The transcription of the interview interac- tion represents all the words spoken that could be identified. Audible paralinguistic communication, such as laughter and pauses, are represented in single parentheses. In the English translation, idiomaticity is a higher priority than literal translation. Personal communication with one of the designers of the sign. References Aikio-Puoskari, U. Journal of Indigenous Peoples Rights, 2, 1— Bakhtin, M.
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Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 11, 84— Coupland, N. Introduction: Sociolinguistics and globalisation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7, — Style: Language variation and identity. Handbook of language and globalization. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell. Deleuze, G. A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Massumi Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Discourses of endangerment. London: Continuum. Fairclough, N. Discourse and social change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Heller, M. Linguistic minorities and modernity: A sociolinguistic ethnography. London, UK: Longman. Globalisation, the new economy, and the commodification of language and identity. Paths to post-nationalism: A critical ethnography of language and identity.
Discourses of endangerment: sociolingistics, globalisation and social order.
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